Padre Francisco Antonio Barbastro to virrey Conde de Revilla Gigedo, informe concerning missions of Pimeria Alta.

Serial Number
041-00865
Title
Padre Francisco Antonio Barbastro to virrey Conde de Revilla Gigedo, informe concerning missions of Pimeria Alta.
Author(s)
Barbastro, Francisco Antonio (Fray)
Date
12-01-1793
Documentation
Aconchi. December 1, 1793. Auto. Copy (dated January 21, 1794).
Summary
Describes geographical range Pimeria Alta missions. Speaks of continuing Apache menace. Notes depopulation of area due to diseases, Apache attacks. Discusses temporal affairs of missions, including livestock raising, planting communal fields maize, wheat, and vegetables, which feeds widows, sick, military escorts, mission Indians during lean months of April, May, and June, thereby inducing Indians to remain in pueblos instead of wild-food gathering. Notes sale of surplus to mines/presidios to purchase church supplies, barter goods. Notes decline of mission agriculture last 8 years due to lack of seeds, decline of Cieneguilla mines, and increased number of farmers. States mission business is conducted by Indian governors under missionaries' guidance. Describes architecture of Indian houses; agriculture, including cultivation of pomegranates, quinces, cotton, and sugar cane as well as shrubs of gomilla, jojoba, both of which used medicinally. Describes herbs used, including indigo (anil), gediondilla, zimarron, contra yerba. Claims 2 harvests pithaya per year in west. Notes presence gypsum, lime, piedra bezal found in deer, especially those killed near coast. Says province is covered with grama grass, thereby providing forage for much livestock. Describes climate, mineral wealth, including real of Cieneguilla, only settlement of Spaniards in Pimeria Alta. Describes settlements. Tiburones described as Seri groups. Describes excellent salt fields along coast. Describes port of Tepoca/pearl beds nearby. Notes presence of subterranean water. Says Papagos come to missions to sell young boys captured in slave raids carried out by interior nations; these slaves called Vijoras (Nixoras). No active commerce carried on by Indians. Describes uses of cotton. Says Pimas are good farmers, growing wheat, maize, squash, cotton. During harvests, many traders arrive to barter cloth, etc. for produce. Says Pimas stay in pueblos, not like Yaquis and many Opatas who wander (probably to work in mines). Discusses reasons why missions should not be secularized. Estimates Gila Pima population at 2,000. Compares Pimas favorably to Opatas, who no longer respect missionaries. Describes temporary nature of Spanish settlement of Sonora, Pimeria Alta. Says 8 leagues from Aconchi, the San Juan mine, full of water, is abandoned now. Discusses precautions necessary for populating Sonora. Encourages development of Tepoca, Guaymas to give Sonora easy access to sea, Tiburon Island as way station for transportation of livestock. Discusses need to develop educational facilities, including primary schools at Indian settlements. Notes belief among Opatas at Aconchi in Montezuma, who they claimed was their king and had risen and appeared in mountains. Describes his school, which taught girls as well as boys to read, write. (T. Sheridan) (1976)
Persons
Font, Pedro (Padre)
Crespo, Benito
Garces, Francisco (Padre)
Moyano (Padre)
Neve, Felipe de
Guillen, Felipe (Padre)
Guemes y Horcasitas, Juan Francisco de (Conde de Revilla Gigedo)
Barbastro, Francisco Antonio (Padre)
Revillagigedo
Rivera Guadian, Juan Francisco (Fray)
Places
Colorado (Rio)
San Francisco Moqui
Nochi
Pimeria Alta
Gila (Rio)
Saric
Tubutama
Ati
Caborca
Ures
Tecoripa
Tucson (Tueson)
Arispe
Cieneguilla
Tumacacori
San Xavier
Santa Maria Suanca
Terrenate
San Luis (Valle)
Guevavi
Calabasas
Cocospera
Imuris
Magdalena
San Ignacio
Altar
Santa Teresa
Oquitoa
Pitiqui
Bisaniq
Tepoca
Isla Tiburon
Yaqui (Rio)
California
San Antonio de la Huerta (Real)
Aigame (Aygame)
Bacanuchi
Chinapa
Banamichi
Ures
San Carlos de Sonora (Real)
Taraychi
Nuri
Onavas
Tecoripa
Suaqui
Buenavista
Cumuripa
Belen
San Jose
Santa Rosalia
Nacameri
Santa Barbara (Canal)
Guachinera
Opatu (Opulo)
Guasavas
Bavispe
San Gabriel
Monterrey (Monte Rey)
New Mexico
Guaymas
Alamos
Oposura
Queretaro, Colegio de Propaganda Fide de la Santa Cruz de
Ethnic Groups
Apaches
Tiburones
Seris
Papagos
Tipocas
Vijoras (Nixoras)
Pimas
Yaquis
Opatas
Pimas Gilenos
Yumas
nochis
Jamajovas
Moquis
First Location
AZTM, AGN, Vol. 033 ff. 529-544 exp. 5
Original Location
AGN, Mexico City, Provincias Internas Vol. 033 ff. 529-544 exp. 5
Language
Spanish
Reference Number
3300017
Rights
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